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2019 Investment Views

Defensive Solutions

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Selection to come into its own

By John Stopford and Jason Borbora

At a glance

  • The bull market is looking increasingly old, with potential catalysts for a bear market building.
  • It may be too early to call the top, but a more defensive stance appears warranted. Equity options could offer a potentially low-cost way to reduce downside risk while continuing to benefit from a final market push.
  • Bonds are looking less attractive, while currency markets are diverging and offering selective opportunities.
  • Security selection looks evermore critical as the cycle nears its inevitable end.

An aging bull

2019 is likely to be a challenging year for financial markets. We are already in the tenth year of a bull market for most pro-cyclical asset classes. A bear market is probably just a matter of time. Valuations are no longer compelling and potential catalysts for a market drawdown are building. These include a variety of leading indicators which, if history is a guide, suggest a recession by late 2020 is becoming increasingly likely. In addition, monetary policy, which has supported asset prices for much of the last decade, is beginning to become less accommodative.

In particular, quantitative easing is gradually being pared back globally and the US Federal Reserve (Fed) has begun to shrink its balance sheet and raise interest rates. The strains this is causing are being transmitted primarily to the rest of the world, especially net debtor nations in the developing world, rather than tightening financial conditions materially in the US. Unfortunately, this absence of tightening alongside loose fiscal policy gives the Fed every reason to continue to tighten policy.

Other potential drivers of a more bearish market environment include:

  • Escalating trade tariffs aimed at curbing China’s growing economic power
  • Potential fallout from messy politics in, for example, Italy and the UK.

Timing is an issue

The case for adopting a steadily more defensive posture in portfolios is, therefore, pretty clear. The problem is that the onset of the next bear market remains highly uncertain. If the global economic expansion still has a year or more to run, then equity markets could go on to new highs before they peak. In general, equity markets tend to rally until just before the onset of recession. A lot of smart people have been cautious throughout this bull market and have missed significant gains as a result.

There is a cost in being too early as well as being too late, but it is probably harder to time being early. We would feel more comfortable in calling a top if most investors were bullish, but they are not. So perhaps the market can continue to climb a wall of worry, as it has done over most of the last few years.

Fortunately, equity call options, which provide a way to participate if the rally continues, while reducing downside risk, are still very cheap in a historical context. We think a sensible strategy is to sell equity futures to hedge some of our physical equity exposure and then buy out of the money calls to benefit if the bull market carries on.

The problem with bonds

We think it is too late in the cycle to own much exposure to corporate bonds, given rising uncertainty. We are also cautious about whether government bonds will provide a hedge if equity markets fall. At least, initially, we worry that bonds and equities might sell off together if tighter monetary policy is the main driver, at least until central banks are compelled to change course.

Figure 1: Credit vulnerable  to rising uncertainty

Forecasts are inherently limited and are not a reliable indicator of future results. Source: Bloomberg, Investec Asset Management July 2018.

Currency divergence

US President Trump’s policies and the resulting growth divergence with the rest of the world remain dollar supportive, which may keep the pressure on countries with weaker balance of payments positions, although some of these appear increasingly oversold. The Japanese yen stands out as being significantly cheap and offering naturally defensive behaviour if equities crack, thanks to Japan’s status as an international creditor.

Figure 2: Japanese yen deviation from fair value

Source: Bloomberg, 15.11.18.

Selection ever more important

There are selective value opportunities in many areas and a bottom-up security driven approach looks increasingly relevant at this stage of the market cycle. A focus on holdings with attractive valuations and yields supported by sustainable cashflows should help to underpin returns in a difficult market environment.

Dynamism and selectivity is key

By Jeff Boswell & Garland Hansmann

At a glance

  • Underlying corporate fundamentals remain reasonably sound, although certain cyclical sectors are showing early signs of strain.
  • With more divergent performance across credit markets in 2018, the attractiveness of valuations differs quite markedly across credit sectors, with pockets of attractiveness contrasting with areas that look particularly expensive.
  • Market price behaviour has been the key driver of credit markets in 2018 and is likely to continue in its starring role.
  • While too early to get unduly defensive, we believe increased selectivity is required.
  • Getting portfolio positioning right can lead to significant outperformance in these markets.

2019: What are the drivers?

As we progress further into an era of reduced central bank support and tightening liquidity, we believe that while fundamentals and valuation will play a role, market price behaviour will remain the key driver in 2019. We still see good opportunities for investment in some credit markets, but increased bouts of volatility are likely to become the norm. The stage is set in the year ahead for the nimble, and well positioned investor, to take advantage of the move from quantitative easing to quantitative tightening (QE to QT). Below we use our ‘Compelling Forces™’ framework, segmenting credit market drivers into Fundamentals, Valuation and Market Price Behaviour, to examine these themes in more detail.

Fundamentals: Sound but not perfect

Going into 2019, the general fundamental backdrop remains sound. The auto sector aside, the robust growth experienced through much of 2018 is slowing rather than turning negative. As such, we think the threat of a very near-term recession is small. This macroeconomic strength has largely fed through to corporate earnings, particularly in the US. This has also translated into a continuing moderation in corporate leverage levels, which currently stand at elevated, but not overly aggressive levels. However, this varies somewhat by market.

It is notable, however, that certain subsets of the economy have recently shown signs of weakness. We have started to see a moderation of momentum in several of the traditionally more cyclical sectors, such as autos, industrials and homebuilders.

As individual issuers within these sectors have reported weaker financial performance, we have typically seen aggressive repricing of their equity or credit spreads, as illustrated below by the equity and bond prices of global chemicals manufacturer Trinseo (Figure 1). This asymmetric price reaction on any earnings miss clearly illustrates the increased value of selectivity.

Figure 1: Trinseo: equity and bond prices compared

Trinseo: equity and bond prices compared

Source: Bloomberg, 30.09.18.

However, this localised stress has yet to filter through into broader measures of market health. As such, default rates have continued to moderate, alongside continued positive ratings drift (more upgrades than downgrades) momentum.

Figure 2: Default rates are moderating

Default rates are moderating

Source: Moodys. As at 31.10.18.

Valuations: A mixed bag

In a year of more divergent performance across the credit market subsets, the relative attractiveness of different credit markets is currently quite variable. Certain subsets, such as US high yield, are trading close to post-crisis lows. Other segments, such as European high yield, have repriced wider since the start of the year. Figure 3 provides a snapshot of the large developed market bond markets, illustrating the variability of these valuations in the context of each asset classes’ history.

Figure 3: Current corporate bond spreads, percentile against history

Current corporate bond spreads, percentile against history

Source: Deutsche Bank, FactSet (ICE BAML). 30.09.18.

The reasons for this valuation divergence differ from case to case. They can be idiosyncratic in nature (e.g. Italian political risk) or down to particularly supportive market technical factors (e.g. US high yield). We believe it is too difficult to generalise in terms of the attractiveness of valuations given the multitude of factors which need to be considered when assessing each market subset.

While we still see potentially attractive risk-adjusted returns across various subsets of the market, we think the year ahead is less about reaching for returns and more about preservation of capital. In this vein, dynamism and selectivity are going to be key to avoiding the more susceptible areas of the credit market.

Market price behaviour: A fine balance

In our view, market price behaviour will continue to be the main driver of markets in 2019. The ‘safe havens’ may not necessarily be where investors expect them, given the impact of extreme monetary policy over the last decade.

Credit markets, along with most financial markets, have benefited significantly in recent years from a wave of central bank liquidity. Easy money has rippled through all credit market subsets, providing a strong tailwind for tighter valuations, supported by improving underlying fundamentals. However, the recent shift from QE to QT, in our mind, is likely to have a material impact on market momentum. The retrenchment of tourist investors (tactical allocators), who don’t consider credit a mainstay of their investing, leaves some areas of the market susceptible.

As such, understanding the behavioural dynamics of individual market subsets is a key theme for us and further illustrates the need for selectivity. We believe this dynamic, along with issuance levels and fund flows, will likely have a meaningful impact on market direction in the year ahead.

Conclusion: We will stay invested, but be selective and dynamic

We believe there are still attractive risk-adjusted returns on offer among the different subsets of the credit market. However, we believe selectivity is going to be key in the year ahead, not only in terms of individual credit selection, but also in selection of subsets of the credit market. We also believe dynamism in both these regards is going to be critical in 2019.

Important information

The information may discuss general market activity or industry trends and is not intended to be relied upon as a forecast, research or investment advice. Nothing herein should be construed as an offer to enter into any contract, investment advice, a recommendation of any kind, a solicitation of clients, or an offer to invest in any particular fund, product, investment vehicle or derivative. The economic and market views presented herein reflect Investec Asset Management’s (‘Investec’) judgment as at the date shown and are subject to change without notice. There is no guarantee that views and opinions expressed will be correct, and Investec’s intentions to buy or sell particular securities in the future may change. The investment views, analysis and market opinions expressed may not reflect those of Investec as a whole, and different views may be expressed based on different investment objectives. Investec has prepared this communication based on internally developed data, public and third party sources. Although we believe the information obtained from public and third party sources to be reliable, we have not independently verified it, and we cannot guarantee its accuracy or completeness. Investec’s internal data may not be audited. Past performance figures shown are not indicative of future performance. Investment involves risks.

In Hong Kong, this document is issued by Investec Asset Management Hong Kong Limited and has not been reviewed by the Securities and Futures Commission of Hong Kong (SFC). The Company’s website has not been reviewed by the SFC and may contain information with respect to non-SFC authorised funds which are not available to the public of Hong Kong.

In Singapore, this document is issued by Investec Asset Management Singapore Pte Limited (company registration number: 201220398M) and has not been reviewed by the Monetary Authority of Singapore.

Except as otherwise authorised, this information may not be shown, copied, transmitted, or otherwise given to any third party without Investec’s prior written consent. © 2018 Investec Asset Management. All rights reserved. Issued by Investec Asset Management, issued November 2018.


Indices are shown for illustrative purposes only, are unmanaged and do not take into account market conditions or the costs associated with investing. Further, the manager’s strategy may deploy investment techniques and instruments not used to generate Index performance. For this reason, the performance of the manager and the Indices are not directly comparable. If applicable MSCI data is sourced from MSCI Inc. MSCI makes no express or implied warranties or representations and shall have no liability whatsoever with respect to any MSCI data contained herein. The MSCI data may not be further redistributed or used as a basis for other indices or any securities or financial products. This report is not approved, endorsed, reviewed or produced by MSCI. None of the MSCI data is intended to constitute investment advice or a recommendation to make (or refrain from making) any kind of investment decision and may not be relied on as such.